Many learning theories and principles put forward by experts have similarities and differences. Of the various learning principles, there are several relatively generally accepted principles that we can use as a basis for learning efforts, both for students who need to increase their learning efforts and for teachers in order to improve their teaching. In general, learning principles are related to:
Active Learning Trends
Today’s psychology considers that children are active creatures. Children have the urge to do something, have their own abilities and aspirations. Learning cannot be forced by others and cannot be delegated to others. Learning is only possible if children actively experience it themselves. Mon Dewey stated that “learning is about what students must do for themselves. So the initiative must come from the students themselves.” The teacher is just a guide and director. In every learning process, students always show activeness.
Activity takes many forms.
Starting from physical activities that are easy to observe to psychological activities that are difficult to observe. Physical activities can include reading, listening, writing, practicing skills, and so on. Examples of psychic activities include using the wealth of knowledge they have in solving the problems they face, comparing one concept situs judi dadu online with another, concluding experimental results, and other psychic activities. As discussed earlier, learning itself is an activity, namely mental and emotional activity. If there are students who are sitting in class during the lesson, their emotional mentality is not actively involved in the learning situation.
In essence, these students do not participate in learning. Therefore, teachers should never allow students who do not actively participate in learning. More than just activating students’ learning, teachers must try to increase the level of these learning activities. The activity of listening to the teacher’s explanation already shows learning activities. However, perhaps the levels need to be increased with other teaching methods. Once to strengthen your understanding of efforts to increase the level of student learning activity, try determining one of the main topics of one of the subjects that is usually taught. Please plan what learning activities your students should do, so that their level of learning activity is relatively high. When you have finished working on it, please discuss it with other teachers at your school or teachers with fellow program participants.
Attention and Motivation
Attention has an important role in learning activities. From the study of information processing learning theory, it is revealed that without attention learning is impossible. Attention to learning will arise in students if the learning material is in accordance with their needs. If the learning material is felt to be something that is needed, necessary for further learning or necessary in everyday life, it will generate motivation to study it. If this natural concern does not exist, students need to raise their attention. In addition to attention, motivation has a very important role in learning activities. Motivation is the energy that moves and directs one’s activities. Motivation can be compared to the engine and steering wheel of a car. According to H.L. Petri Motivation can be a goal and a tool in learning. As a goal of motivation is one goal in teaching. The teacher hopes that students are interested in intellectual and aesthetic activities until the learning activities end. As a tool, motivation is a factor, like intelligence and previous learning results, which can determine students’ learning success in the areas of knowledge, values and skills. Motivation has a close relationship with interest.
Students who have an interest in a particular field of study tend to have their attention attracted and thus their motivation arises to study that field of study. Motivation is also influenced by values that are considered important in one’s life. Changes in adopted values will change human behavior and motivation. Therefore, the learning materials presented should be tailored to the interests of students and not conflict with the values prevailing in society. Students’ attitudes, like motives, give rise to and direct their activities. Students who like mathematics will enjoy learning mathematics and will be encouraged to study harder, and vice versa. Therefore it is an obligation for teachers to be able to instill